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Andrology Laboratory Services
We provide specialized laboratory testing. Our technical staff have years of experience in performing these tests.

SEMEN ANALYSIS is an essential test for evaluating whether there is a male factor contributing to infertility. It is an effective and non-invasive test. This test measures the normalcy of your semen sample. It includes a determination of color, viscosity (consistency), volume, liquefaction, pH, sperm concentration, percent motility, morphology (assesses the shape and forms), grade of progression (evaluates the quality of the movement) and type and number of non-sperm cells (i.e. white blood cells, red blood cells). Your doctor will usually recommend that at least two semen analysis be performed.

KRUGER STRICT MORPHOLOGY looks at the functionality of normal appearing sperm. The strict morphology takes a critical look at many individual sperm according to a very strict set of criteria. We closely examine the sperm cells for normal size and shape of the head, mid piece, tail or for any other abnormalities. Even a minor defect in any category rates the sperm as abnormal. Therefore, relatively few sperm are rated as "normal" or perfect (near-perfect) during the strict morphology test.

VIABILITY TEST is a test determines if non-motile sperm are alive or dead. Sperm viability (vitality) should be assessed if a low percentage of sperm are progressively motile. The percentage of live spermatozoa is determined by identifying sperm with an intact cell membrane. This is done by using a dye exclusion method where dye enters a non-vital (dead) cell due to the damaged plasma membrane. Therefore, viable cells will not appear stained, but non-viable cells will take up the stain.

CENTRIFUGATION IN AZOOSPERMIA is required and a standard protocol in our laboratory. IF no sperm cells are observed after examining the semen several times, the sample is centrifuged at high speeds to concentrate the semen sample. The semen sample sediment is then meticulously examined several times.

FRUCTOSE TEST is a test used to differentiate non production of sperm from a blockage, in men with no sperm or a very low sperm count. Fructose is only made in certain glands, the seminal vesicles, which may be absent in men with missing or incomplete ducts.

POST- EJACULATORY SEMEN ANALYSIS(PEU) is an analysis of the urine collected after an ejaculation. This test helps to determine if the patient is having a retrograde ejaculation. Retrograde ejaculation refers to the entry of semen into the bladder instead of going out through the urethra during ejaculation.

ANTISPERM ANTIBODY TEST helps to determine if there is an immunologic factor contributing to infertility. Antisperm antibodies can be produced by both men and women. Men can form antisperm antibodies against their own sperm and women can generate antibodies against their partnerŐs sperm. An antisperm antibody test looks for special proteins called antibodies that fight against a man's sperm in blood, vaginal fluids, or semen. The test uses a sample of sperm and adds a substance that binds only to the affected sperm.

DNA FRAGMENTATION TEST is an analysis of the sperm DNA integrity. A high level of DNA fragmentation in sperm cells may represent a cause of male infertility. Elevated levels of DNA fragmentation above the critical threshold can significantly compromise the possibility of a successful pregnancy. Information about sperm DNA integrity may help in the clinical diagnosis, management and treatment of male infertility and may be of prognostic value in assessing the outcome of assisted reproductive treatment.

SPERM PENETRATION ASSAY is used to evaluate sperm function in cases of unexplained infertility and to determine the fertilizing potential of severely oligospermic men (men with low sperm counts). This test measures the ability of the sperm to penetrate hamster ova.

SPERM WASHING is ordered prior to intrauterine insemination because it removes chemicals which may cause adverse reactions in the uterus. It also enhances the fertilizing capacity of the sperm and is thus recommended in cases of immunologic, male- factor, or unexplained infertility.

Sperm washing involves removing the seminal plasma and any cryoprotectant from the specimen. We offer the basic sperm wash technique using dilution and centrifugation; the Density Gradient wash using density gradient centrifugation to isolate and purify the motile sperm; and Swim-up Wash using self-migration to obtain a sperm sample with a motility of at least 90%.

SEX PRE-SELECTION may be used to increase the chances of having a child of a certain sex. The technique we use is based on the premise that sperm cells carrying a Y chromosome (male) move faster than those carrying an X chromosome (female). As the sperm cells move through an albumin solution, sperm separate according to whether they carry an X or Y chromosome. The woman can then be artificially inseminated with X or Y bearing sperm depending on the sex she desires for her baby.

SEMEN CULTURE tests for the presence of bacteria in your semen. Your doctor or healthcare provider will determine if treatment is needed.

HORMONAL TESTING Hormones produced by the pituitary gland, hypothalamus and testicles play a key role in sexual development and sperm production. Abnormalities in other hormonal or organ systems might also contribute to infertility. A blood test measures the level of these hormones. Your doctor will request your hormone profile test.


332 East 30th Street, New York NY 10016
Phone (212) 779-3988   Fax (212) 779-3907